SITJAR - Previous Volumes and Issues

ISSN: 1175-1061

萝莉少女 Journal of Applied Research (SITJAR) - /sitjar is an online journal that specialises in applied research in the vocational and educational sector. The journal seeks original material in any field of applied research related to vocational education and training and is aimed at practitioners, academics and researchers.


 Authors: Niamh Edginton, Christine Liang, Anna Palliser, and Claudia Gonnelli (2020).

Plastic pollution is currently at the forefront of environmental concern as the impacts of microplastics (particles <5 mm) may exacerbate existing degradation of aquatic ecosystems. The majority of the literature on plastic pollution is focused on the marine environment and only one study in New Zealand has quantified microplastics present in waterways despite evidence suggesting that rivers contain the highest concentrations of plastic pollution. This research focuses on two inner-city waterways in Invercargill city.

View Document

 Authors: Mary Dang and Tapuwa Marapara (2020).

The aim of this research was to investigate the quantity of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) diffusing from pasture soils and wetland soils, on a dairy farmland, in Waituna catchment. It assesses the spatial variability of the emissions associated with changes in soil moisture and temperature.

View Document

 Authors: Hélène Geoffroy-Legeay, Joanna Smith, Donna Smith and Debbie Ruwhiu. (2020).

Bachelor’s degree qualified massage therapists are increasing within New Zealand. Numbers estimated in 2018 were one hundred and fifty graduates. There are no educational requirements to work as a massage therapist in New Zealand. There is also no government or self-regulatory requirements or cultural guidelines. New Zealand as a bicultural nation requires health care and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professionals to be culturally competent and representative of their community.

View Document

Is it time to step up and act? Next steps for New Zealand Bachelor's Degree Qualified Massage Therapists

Authors: Smith, D., Smith, J., Andersen, J., Gyllentsen, C., Kent, T., Knight, E., Liu, Y., Mason, J., & Wilson, A. (2020).

Bachelor’s degree qualified massage therapists are increasing in number within New Zealand with numbers currently estimated at one hundred and fifty graduates since 2004. There are no educational requirements to work as a massage therapist within New Zealand and no government or self-regulatory requirements. The incentive to study a bachelor’s degree in massage therapy may be viewed as individually driven rather than industry driven. As the number of bachelor’s degree massage therapy graduates increases, the representation of this group by a professional body/association or a register of degree qualified massage therapists (DQMTs) is essential to promote the profession and safety of the general public.

View Document

Special Edition: Environmental Publications

School of Environmental Management, Faculty of Health, Humanities & Computing, 萝莉少女, New Zealand

Programme Manager: Christine Liang ; Editor: Jeff Hoffman

  • A Survey of The Adoption of Riparian Planting by Dairy Farmers in The Waituna Catchment - Rebecca Crack and Tapuwa Marapara
  • Damming the Dam Sixty Years On: Continued Conflict Over the Manapouri Hydro-Electric Power Scheme, New Zealand – Debbie Ellis And Anna Palliser
  • Electronic Waste Management in Schools, Industries, And Companies in Invercargill, Southland – Inessa Endawie And Tapuwa Marapara
  • Plant Survey of Ephemeral Tiny Turf Communities in The Long White Lagoon in New Zealand – Gabrielle Wahrlich And Tapuwa Marapara
  • Turning Tides in New Zealand Intertidal Research: A Baseline Study of Ulva Island Intertidal Zones – Rhiannon Warren And Christine Liang
  • An Ecological and Hydro-Chemical Baseline Assessment of Long White Lagoon – Ainsley Adams And Tapuwa Marapara

 View Document

An Evaluation of a Student-led Mentorship Programme in a New Zealand School of Nursing

Johanna Rhodes and Mary McMillan - School Nursing, Faculty of Health, Humanities & Computing, 萝莉少女, New Zealand.

Five, year three nursing students implemented a student-led mentorship programme to 萝莉少女 guidance and support to new nursing students in the School of Nursing at the 萝莉少女. New nursing students to the institute were invited to join the programme during orientation week at the commencement of the academic year. The Mentorship Programme Leaders then matched Mentors with Mentees. 

The two purposes of the student-led mentorship programme were to foster better communication and community between students to reduce stress and anxiety, essentially helping to improve a sense of belonging. The second was an opportunity for Mentorship Programme Leaders and Mentors to improve their intangible skills of communication and leadership.

Click here to view the document

Blackboard discussions in online courses – where is the value?

Robyn Hill, SIT2LRN 萝莉少女 and Robert Horrocks, SIT2LRN 萝莉少女

This research set out to determine how SIT2LRN facilitators use Discussion Boards for assessment and to promote online learning within courses. Facilitators’ practice was evaluated using a mixed methodological approach supported by a review of the literature. Secondary data was obtained through examination of course outlines and Discussion Board content. Primary data came from a quantitative questionnaire and two focus groups. The research revealed some facilitators used Discussion Boards to promote online engagement of students, and, in limited cases, student creativity and critical thinking. Facilitators noted a correlation between students’ engagement with Discussion Boards and higher grades. Through the Discussion Boards, facilitators encouraged interaction, collaboration, dialogue and reflection among students. They aimed to align course learning outcomes and discussion topics, encourage peer-to-peer feedback, promote camaraderie, encourage sharing of work, and 萝莉少女 motivation. The research found facilitators in higher level courses had more assessed Discussion Board activities, although there were diverse approaches to assessment. A correlation between assessment of the activity and student interaction was noted. The research concluded a more consistent approach in how facilitators use Discussion Boards is needed, together with clear guidelines for alignment of the activities with course learning outcomes and formative and summative assessment.

Click here to view the document


An Ecological Hydro-chemical Baseline Assessment of Long White Lagoon

Ainsley Adams and Tapuwa Marapara - School of Environmental Management, Faculty of Health, Humanities & Computing, 萝莉少女, New Zealand

We are pleased to submit our manuscript entitled “An Ecological and Hydro-chemical Baseline Assessment of Long White Lagoon” for publication in the student/staff special edition of SITJAR. Wetlands are among the world’s most diverse and productive ecosystems supporting a wide variety of flora and fauna often harbouring rare and endangered species. They are often referred to as “earth’s kidneys” as they are known to filter toxins and contaminants from water. The aim for this study was to carry out ecological and hydro-chemical baseline assessments at Long White Lagoon wetland, to 萝莉少女 data that gives a snapshot of the health and integrity of the ecosystem, to guide restoration, management and future monitoring. This study assessed sediment size and quality, water quality, vegetation assemblage, and fish at the Long White Lagoon. In this manuscript we highlight that sediments are comprised of mainly sand, and some silt particles, and the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus exceeded threshold limits set out in the Australian and New Zealand Environment Conservation Councils (ANZECC). Water quality results showed that the Long White Lagoon is in a hypertrophic state of extreme degradation. The vegetation mapping results showed that there are diverse native wetland vegetation assemblages present. We demonstrate that the native vegetation assemblages present make the Long White Lagoon a significant pocket of biodiversity within a heavily monocultural area and an important remnant of the Southland coastal habitat. Hence, it would be ideal to manage the lagoon by planting native vegetation in areas where clear runoff is contributed from the neighboring dairy cow paddocks. There are a few visually notable areas such as drainage channels in the dip of small hills that accumulate runoff and channel it down through short pastoral grass straight into the lagoon water body. Replanting various native trees in these areas can reduce sediments, excess nutrients and fecal coliforms from entering the lagoon body.

View the document

Damming the dam sixty years on: continued conflict over the Manapouri hydro-electric power scheme, New Zealand.

Debbie Ellis and Anna Palliser - Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Health, Humanities & Computing, 萝莉少女, New Zealand.

Almost half of New Zealand’s electricity is generated from hydro-power and the Manap艒uri Hydropower Scheme, which first began generating in 1969, is New Zealand’s largest, with a current maximum output of 800MW, enough for 619000 homes (Meridian Energy, n.d.). The Manap艒uri plant takes water from a lake and river system largely located in Fiordland, a National Park located in the mountains of Southland, South Island, New Zealand. This is an unusual hydro scheme in that its freshwater take is diverted directly into the ocean after passing through turbines, thus it can be considered as freshwater abstraction rather than diversion. Most New Zealand river or lake based hydro power plants retain or divert freshwater, releasing it after use back into the freshwater system (Young, Smart and Harding, 2004).

Download the document

Enhancing Student Learning In Solving Word Problems in Thermodynamics based ON Newman's Error Analysis

Carlo Gabriel - School of Engineering 萝莉少女

In this study, Newman's Error Analysis procedure was used to identify the errors of the students in solving mathematical word problems in Thermodynamics. From these errors, a study guide was designed to enhance the students' learning in the course. A pre-test and post-test research design was adopted. Eight students enrolled in a degree course in Thermodynamics participated. The pre-test (diagnostic test) helped in identifying the root cause of students' poor performance in solving mathematical word problems. A post-test analysis determined that the intervention (a developed study guide) had a significant effect on performance. The findings of the study confirmed that effective and efficient Thermodynamics pedagogy requires the utilization of a programmed instruction (e.g. a developed study guide) in addition to textbook-based lectures. Exercises used in the study guide were based on Newman's Error Analysis Pattern. Further, the results showed that the construction of a study guide is the foremost consideration.

The development and utilization of a high-quality study guide poses a number of challenges for instructors however, these efforts are worthwhile, given the beneficial effects for the learning of the students.

Keywords: Newman's Error Analysis (NEA), Thermodynamics pedagogy, solving word-problems, developed study guide, mathematical errors.

Download the document

A Valuable Lesson: The potential benefits and pitfalls of real-world community projects.

Emma Cathcart - 萝莉少女

This article presents a reflection of a case study carried out in 2017, which aimed to combine assessment for fourteen costume design and production students, studying on the Bachelor of Fashion (Design and Technology) at the 萝莉少女 with a local community theatre company.  It addresses and discusses some of the challenges faced when forming such a collaboration between a real-world project and a costume paper for assessment.  The discussion highlights positive outcomes achieved, despite real-world setbacks, and shares experiences encountered through example and student feedback. Observations were noted throughout the entire project and conclusions drawn, with a view to recommending future improvements in experiential teaching practices and/or learning experiences for tutors and students alike.  Qualitative data was also obtained through reflective discussion and tailored questionnaires at the end of assessment project for further analysis.

Download the document

An auto-ethnographical argosy of the experiences of nursing educators who implemented Mask-Ed™ (KRS Simulation).

Mask-Ed™ (KRS Simulation) hereafter referred to as Mask-Ed is a vivid, realistic, high fidelity simulation modality  (McAllister, Reid-Searl, & Davis, 2013; Reid-Searl, 2011; Rhodes & Reid-Searl, 2015) developed out of Reid-Searl’s, desire to better prepare nursing students for the reality of their discipline, in an authentic and meaningful manner (Reid-Searl, 2011). Mask-Ed is when a nurse educator dons silicone props and transforms into a character (Reid-Searl, 2011; Reid-Searl, Happell, Vieth, & Eaton, 2011, 2012; Rhodes et al. 2015). The Mask-Ed character has a socio-medical history that serves as the platform for learning and teaching. The 萝莉少女 hosted a Mask-Ed workshop to broaden their repertoire of simulation modalities, and implemented this into the institutes nursing and inter-professional education programmes.  

The primary aim of this inquiry was to capture our experiences of implementing the simulation modality of Mask-Ed, and secondly to gain critical insights into these experiences. An auto-ethnographic narrative inquiry enabled us to convey our experiences by using narrative reflexive vignettes. Our thematic analysis resulted in four themes, (1) vulnerability, (2) the art of masking, (3) healthy scepticism, and (4) breaking down silos. This study offers an insight into the implementation of Mask-Ed as an authentic member of the 萝莉少女 simulation modalities. The experience by the nursing educators has added to Mask-Ed research, and 萝莉少女d a genesis for further studies.

Download the document

Ordinary meaning from extra-ordinary experience: Occupational therapists’ use of experiential learning in adventure therapy.

Helen Jeffery, Senior Lecturer, School of Occupational Therapy, Otago Polytechnic.

Adventure therapy uses experiential learning within adventurous outdoor activities to facilitate therapeutic outcomes, generally with youth in mental health settings. Forms of an experiential learning cycle are commonly employed, with a strong focus on debriefing to ensure meaning is made from the experience and to enhance transfer of learning from the experience to everyday life. Despite occupational therapists increasing profile in adventure therapy circles, there is little explanation of their work in this field in the literature, and the use of adventure therapy by occupational therapists has not been researched.

Download the document


The Development of an Autonomous Library Robot

Shaun Chalmers, Department of Electrical Engineering, Otago Polytechnic.

This paper describes the development and implementation of an autonomous library robot with the purpose of tracking the locations of books on the various shelves. Libraries nowadays 萝莉少女 a growing amount of digital services and resources, and continue to acquire large quantities of printed material. Often library users looking for a particular book cannot locate it due to either the fact that either the book is out or been misplaced. This creates frustration and delays for the library patron and pressure on staff to try and locate the particular material. An autonomous library robot has been developed to reduce the location times by providing accurate updates of the items last location. The robot has a self-navigating system that uses a mobile platform. It is also equipped with a radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag reader located on a single movable arm that allows the scanning of books located on shelves at different heights. The high level navigation, communications, and data processing are handled by a Raspberry Pi processor while the low level navigation and motor control was done using an Arduino processor. This multilevel approach allows process optimization, with the prototype being successfully tested in the Dunedin Public Library. The detailed developments of the robot design and control systems are presented in this paper.

Download the document

The development of a cross-matrix for evaluating active learning methods

Leah Ingrid Seno

This paper describes the development of a tool, called the cross-matrix, for evaluating active learning in the classroom. The aim of the tool is to improve teaching practice by creating a means of ensuring that a learning method applied in the classroom achieves the goals of learning. Two important theories in education were integrated to produce the cross-matrix: Fink’s Active Learning Model and Bloom’s Taxonomy. Fink’s Active Learning Model identifies three interrelated components integral to a complete learning experience: information and ideas, experiencing, reflective dialogue (Fink, n.d.). Bloom’s Taxonomy identifies three domains of learning: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor (Clark, 2013). The matrix contains evaluation criteria which are cross-elements of both. The combination of these components into one tool ensures that students are getting maximum benefit out of active learning and are developing a wider range of skills to enhance their work-readiness. The cross-matrix was trialled in a series of learning activities implemented within WelTec (Wellington Institute of Technology) where the researcher is a lecturer. The findings of the study show that the cross-matrix 萝莉少女s insight into what a learner acquires from a learning method, pinpoints gaps in their learning experience and ensures that the method has a high degree of educational impact.

View PDF

Problem Solving Strategies in Math Anxiety Management
John Mumford, Frank Smedley

Math anxiety is a phenomenon that overshadows the lives of many individuals, evoking strong emotions in students, teachers and parents blocking academic progress, and leading to reduced career opportunity choices. Anxiety associated with mathematics is a persistent challenge to the teaching profession across many sectors and academic levels. The rationale for this research is to better understand math anxiety by identifying key risk factors for math anxiety and appropriate strategies to reduce it. Results confirmed the highly complex multidimensional nature of math anxiety and the power that a single strategy could address multiple risk factors. Mathematical content knowledge of teachers is a highly significant component of sector-wide strategies to deal with math anxiety. Teacher professional development, increased awareness of the power of informal methods of mathematical problem-solving and multiple approaches to mathematical problem solving is needed to support efforts to reduce math anxiety.

View PDF

Using PeerWise to Knowledge Build and Consolidate Knowledge in Nursing Education
Johanna Rhodes

This paper describes a quantitative research study which hypothesised that “Using PeerWise 萝莉少女d opportunities for knowledge building and consolidating knowledge for Nursing Students in the third year of their Bachelor of Nursing programme at the 萝莉少女”. PeerWise is an on-line repository of multiple choice questions that educators and students create, and share. The 2012 year three Bachelor of Nursing cohort accessed PeerWise from February 2012 until November 2012 and this was linked to the clinical paper ‘Nursing in the Acute Setting’, a 30 credit paper in the Bachelor of Nursing curriculum. This study used manifest content analysis and the results suggested that PeerWise had 萝莉少女d opportunities for knowledge building and consolidating understanding.

View PDF

An investigation into the sport needs and preferences of youth aged 13-18 years in a semi-rural community
Mike Dudson, Greg Cummings, Cath Fraser

Well designed, integrated, and efficiently delivered school and community sport and recreation programmes can 萝莉少女 a wide range of benefits including the ability to assist in the development of productive and engaged citizens, 萝莉少女 social cohesion, produce economic benefits, enhance a region’s identity and build a healthier community. In recognition of these benefits, secondary schools have a well-established tradition of providing opportunities for students to engage in social and competitive sporting pursuits. However, recent nation-wide surveys have identified a decline in student participation in sport, and indeed, in physical activity behaviour overall. To date, little research has been undertaken to probe this phenomenon; the survey reported in this paper offers a possible starting point for understanding the specific needs and preferences of students in order to enhance the delivery sport programmes within the school and the community. A survey of 1495 students from two semi-rural secondary schools found while 84% of the sample reported they wanted to play sport, only 60% currently did so. This paper describes patterns of current sport engagement, motivators and barriers to participation in sport, and sporting preferences. Several recommendations for schools, sports programme 萝莉少女rs and future researchers in this field are made.

View PDF


SITJAR Special Edition: Highlighting Staff-Student Research

Welcome to this special edition of SITJAR that presents a small number of the staff-student research projects undertaken at 萝莉少女 in 2010/2011. This special edition arose from the observation that there were a number of excellent small scale research projects being undertaken as part of the undergraduate degree curricula with findings that would be of interest to a wider community. The purpose of this edition is to disseminate some of the research findings from eight studies across the disciplines of massage therapy, environmental management, and sport and exercise.

View PDF

Reshaping Educational Experience by Investing in Community
Dr. Martin Andrew, Celine Kearney

The notion of “community” holds a key to enhancing higher education experiences for learners of English as an Additional Language (EAL), a core discipline of the vocational education and training (VET) sector in New Zealand. This paper contextualises the experiences of advanced EAL learners investing and participating in assessed community placements. Community placements represent a pedagogical intervention effectively giving learners access to communities of practice in a meaningful, authentic, real-world context. Pedagogically, they create learning contexts where instructors can reshape learners’ experiences by preparing students to explore and experience the linguistic and cultural potential of community. In the project, the journalised reflections of migrants and international students participating in a degree in EAL in New Zealand reveal the linguistic, cultural and ontological value of community work. The study uses the concepts of learner investment, communities of practice and imagined communities to theorise the participants’ learning, presents key qualitative findings about the cultural, linguistic, and transformative capital of community placements, and suggests they are valuable pedagogical interventions that can help reconfigure teaching and learning EAL in VET contexts.

View PDF

Promoting Engagement and Learning in First Year University
Peter Stanley, Cath Fraser, Dorothy Spiller

Student engagement in higher education can be conceptualised as involving three components: students’ social needs and circumstances, the cognitive characteristics of academic studies, and the prevailing institutional ethos or philosophy that specifies the relationships that students have with learning and knowledge. This paper reports on an investigation into student engagement in a first-year human development course at the University of Waikato at Tauranga, New Zealand where the teaching staff has a commitment to relating learning to individual experiences. Information from an end-of-course survey indicates that a philosophy of personalisation promotes learning engagement. Students reported that they were required to think a lot or a great deal, that they put time into the course assessments, and that they valued the human development course itself.

View PDF


Special Action Research Edition

Breaking the Myth of Teacher Retention – the Relationship between Effective Performance Factors and Teacher Retention in Singapore’s Preschool Industry
Philly Pek Tin Tin and Keith Ng Yong Ngee

Research from around the globe indicates that preschool teachers have a positive impact on quality early childhood care and education for young children. Early childhood education is important to nurture learning during a child’s the first six years. It is during these years that the platform for cognitive, social, emotional and physical development for dealing with the outside world is laid. However, with the recent increase in preschool teacher’s requirements and qualifications, it is likely preschools will face more challenges in recruiting qualified preschool teachers. Singapore preschools are already facing increasing difficulties in retaining qualified early childhood educators.

There is little research into the retention of preschool teachers in the Singapore early childhood industry. Hence, this paper proposes a theoretical model, based on a review of the more general literature, that identifies important effective performance management factors for teacher retention. These include financial and non-financial rewards, employee feedback and training,
and development of the employee.


“What’s in it for me?” Massage practitioners’ perceptions of a degree qualification: a pilot study
Donna M. Smith, Joanna M. Smith, Rachel Spronken-S

Massage therapy is among the many growing complementary and alternative medicine modalities within New Zealand. Educational standards are unregulated and qualifications include certificates, diplomas and more recently a three-year Bachelors Degree in Massage Therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of the benefits and barriers to degree-based massage education. Issues examined were: purposes of degree-based education; perceived benefits of degree-based massage education; participant’s past education in massage therapy; current educational needs; and barriers to accessing degree-based massage education. The project used a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews with three practicing, certificate or diploma qualified massage therapists. Perceived benefits of degree-based massage education were increased capability, research knowledge, job opportunities, and credibility. Participants identified four significant barriers to participating in further or higher education: a nonessential pursuit; time restraints; family considerations; and financial barriers. The view that a massage degree was non-essential, and that being forced by their professional body to undertake a degree qualification would meet with strong resistance, needs to be addressed by education 萝莉少女rs and members of the massage therapy community if the profession is to advance as a health care modality.

View PDF


Bridging the digital divide: Students’ access to digital technologies in a language department
Moira Hobbs, Karen Haines

In many institutions in New Zealand from primary to tertiary level, the use of technology by both students and teachers to support learning and teaching is assumed. This article reports briefly on research done in a New Zealand tertiary institution in order to discover students’ perceptions of their access to and use of computer technologies. As well as giving a general overview of feedback from the 161 English as a Second or Other Language (ESOL) students in the study, responses are analysed in relation to age, gender and nationality groups. Results suggest that general access for students is high, but that differences exist in relation to gender and nationality. Such individual differences must always be considered by classroom teachers and accounted for as much as possible, as teachers continue to integrate technology use into their classroom practice.

View PDF

Knowledge Management and Public Records Compliance: A Forgotten World
Julian Galt and Stewart Hase

Tertiary institutes in New Zealand are being challenged by the need to make headway on Public Records Act (PRA) compliance. This aspect of knowledge management has been hitherto largely neglected. Furthermore, the actual implementation of knowledge management systems, where the rubber hits the road, is still developing at a time when ensuring that one’s knowledge base is not lost as staff move jobs, retire or are retrenched. This case study focuses on the strategy and implementation processes of a tertiary institution and the steps taken towards compliance. It examines the strategies employed to support the organisation’s growth and viability, and identifies issues contributing to a mismatch between the underpinning records systems, and operational needs. The institution has instigated an implementation plan to address this misalignment of strategies, and to address both the need for effective systems to support the organisation’s core activities, and the need for legislative compliance.


The effect of massage on flexibility, comfort, efficiency and aerodynamic performance in time trial cycling: a single case study. Derek N. Tan and Joanna M. Smith

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a six week massage intervention on an athlete’s flexibility, comfort and performance in time trial cycling. A single case study design was used. Pre-intervention and post-intervention measures were obtained in a high and low time trial riding position over a 3000 meter distance. Flexibility was measured with a sit and reach test. The athlete was massaged twice a week using a hamstring and calf protocol over a period of six weeks. The athlete did not engage in hamstring, calf or low back stretching and trained in a normal road riding position for the duration of the intervention. Quicker times were reported in the post massage intervention time trial tests of both high and low riding positions. The lower position with its improved aerodynamics was the fastest position in both pre and post massage intervention. The sit and reach testing showed an overall increase in reach of 77 mm. Massage intervention improved flexibility and this allowed the athlete to be both comfortable and efficient in the lower time trial position and improved cycling performance with no post exercise muscle soreness.


New primary source documents and evidence pertaining to the early years of the manufactory between 1730–1747, and John Campbell’s letter to Arthur Dobbs  Pat Daniels and W. Ross H Ramsay

This contribution relates to the early years of the Bow Porcelain Manufactory, its paste types used, and in particular to a letter written by John Campbell to Arthur Dobbs in which is mentioned white clay seen at Bow for their china ware. The date of the letter is deduced as early 1745 and the writer is corroborated as being John Campbell of Lazy Hill, Bertie County, North Carolina. Historical research on both sides of the Atlantic has established that the latest John Campbell could have been on site at Bow was during mid 1742, although there are compelling grounds for suggesting an even earlier date. Therefore Campbell’s visit to Bow represents the earliest extant eye-witness account of this famous porcelain concern. As a result, this personal correspondence should be recognised as one of the most important primary source documents relating to the English porcelain industry. It specifically names Bow as a business enterprise and mentions the use of white clay for its china ware, established here as most likely Cherokee china clay. Combined with other evidence as presented, it would seem that the chronology of some early Bow porcelains requires reassessment.

Special Editions

Electronic Waste Management in schools, industries, and companies in Invercargill, Southland

Inessa Endawie and Tapuwa Marapara
School of Environmental Management, Faculty of Health, Humanities & Computing, 萝莉少女, New Zealand.

We are pleased to submit our manuscript entitled “Electronic Waste Management in schools, industries and companies in Invercargill, Southland” for publication in the student/staff special edition of SITJAR. During the last two decades, new technologies have continually developed with the latest designs having “smart” functions, which has resulted in many outdated appliances being thrown into landfills without consideration of their impact on the environment. The aim of this study was to analyse electronic waste (e-waste) management in schools, industries and companies to determine the amount of electronic goods disposed by each firm in Invercargill, New Zealand. This study investigated the amount of e-waste that is produced per year and how it is managed by industries, companies, and schools. In this manuscript we highlight that there are no standard systems of e-waste disposal in schools, companies and industries in Invercargill. There is also a significant amount of e-waste that is not being recycled and some companies export their e-waste to other countries overseas. We demonstrate that there is a huge gap in research on e-waste recycling in New Zealand. Hence, further studies are required to fill in the knowledge gap and collect and record data in relation to electronic and electrical equipment waste in a more comprehensive manner.

Read the Report

Turning tides in New Zealand intertidal research: a baseline study of Ulva Island intertidal zones

Rhiannon Warren and Christine Yiqing Liang 
School of Environmental Management, Faculty of Health, Humanities & Computing, 萝莉少女, New Zealand.

Intertidal zones are areas of shoreline that are exposed to both air during low tide and seawater during high tide. These habitats are home to a unique subset of species that are highly indicative of changes in surrounding marine and terrestrial environments. Large areas of New Zealand’s rocky coastlines are lacking in significant ecological datasets, despite the potential for use by researchers and environmental managers. This study quantified intertidal macro-invertebrate species on Ulva Island rocky shorelines, in order to fill ecological data gaps present in the knowledge base of the area. Five intertidal sites were surveyed using a transect-quadrat method. The sites interlapped with the waters of Te Wharawhara marine reserve and the m膩taitai area of the surrounding inlet. Across the study sites, a total of 3159 individuals were counted, encompassing 31 different species. Based upon this data, the existence, abundance and distribution of marine macro-invertebrates across high, mid and low tidal shoreline zones were identified. Sites were all found to have high Simpson’s Diversity Index scores (SDI = 0.77-0.90), indicating good ecosystem health.  Findings from this research could contribute baseline data for the purposes of aiding future intertidal, terrestrial and marine monitoring and management in the Paterson’s Inlet area, and similar intertidal environments throughout New Zealand. 

Read the Report

Plant Survey of Ephemeral Tiny Turf Communities in the Long White Lagoon in New Zealand

Gabrielle Wahrlich and Tapuwa Marapara
School of Environmental Management, Faculty of Health, Humanities & Computing, 萝莉少女, New Zealand.

This project was carried out to establish baseline data of the spatial distribution of turf plant communities in the Long White Lagoon (LWL) in Southland. Turf communities form in marginal zones of wetland areas experiencing fluctuating water levels. These turf communities increase biodiversity and contribute to ecosystem functions of wetland areas. The goal was to establish the distribution of turf plant communities to 萝莉少女 recommendations for effective restoration and conservation of the Long White Lagoon. A vegetation survey of the ephemeral zones of lagoon was conducted, and variables that influence the growth of turf species, such as quality of sediments, soil moisture content and environmental pressures, were also quantified. The abundance and presence of turf plants, volumetric soil moisture content and sediment quality were quantified in 50cm by 50cm quadrats along a transect line in three lagoon bodies. The results showed that a majority of the ephemeral species found were native dicotyledonous herbs and exotic grasses. There were some ‘threatened’ and ‘at risk’ species found, including Epilobium angustum, Isolepis basilaris and Eleocharis neozelandica. There were no significant metals found that would affect vegetation growth and all nutrients were in normal plant obtainable ranges. This data was collected mid-winter, and the observed vegetation assemblage is likely to be different in the summer months during the flowering season. Therefore, it is recommended that a further study should be carried out in the summer to gain a better understanding of the ephemeral assemblages present at the site.

Read the Report

A Survey of the Adoption of Riparian Planting by Dairy Farmers in the Waituna Catchment.

Rebecca Crack and Tapuwa Marapara
School of Environmental Management, Faculty of Health, Humanities & Computing, 萝莉少女, New Zealand.

Throughout the years increasing agricultural development and intensification of farming in the Waituna Catchment, has significantly contributed to the decline of water quality and environmental health of the Waituna lagoon. A range of sustainable land use management strategies are being put in place to reduce the amount of sediment and nutrient inputs to the lagoon. These strategies are envisaged to prevent further decline of water quality and improve the health of the lagoon. The aim of this research was to carry out an investigation on the knowledge and application of riparian planting by dairy farmers in the Waituna Catchment. To fulfil this aim, a questionnaire survey and a vegetation survey of riparian zones were carried out to assess the adoption of riparian planting by dairy farmers along the Waituna Catchment.  It was found that farmers were aware of the importance of planting vegetation in the riparian zone and were aware of the general functions a vegetated zone 萝莉少女s, i.e. managing runoff and erosion.  This research noted that some dairy farmers surveyed are showing a positive approach to managing water quality deterioration, by adopting the idea of vegetated riparian zones as a source of mitigating agricultural impacts on streams and waterways within their properties. Through this study, it was found that the adoption of vegetated riparian zones, may benefit the catchment as a whole by mitigating negative impacts of unsustainable farming practices. It is recommended to carry out more vegetation surveys in Waituna and other catchments around Southland, to allow for further understanding of the application and establishment of riparian planting by the farming community at catchment level.

Read the Report


It’s been 16 years since the first paper was published on heutagogy in 2000 by the originators of the concept, Stewart Hase and Chris Kenyon. Since then there has been hundreds of articles, blogs and other conversations about the topic. Most importantly, there has been an increase in publications researching the use of heutagogy and an impressive number of doctoral students choosing to focus their thesis on the topic.

Heutagogy has been applied in a wide variety of settings including lifelong learning, higher education, elearning, mobile learning, professional education, distance education, school education and vocational training, for example. This growing literature has meant that the concept of heutagogy has developed considerably since that first paper.

One of the main developments has been the ability to draw on brain and other research that has enabled the articulation of an evidence-based practice, now central to the literature on heutagogy. The paper by Stewart Hase describes the connection between brain research and heutagogy, along with a number of theoretical developments and practical applications that have occurred since 2000.

While heutagogy has been used in a number of contexts, a large proportion of the literature has been devoted to how self-determined learning can be applied to distance education, elearning and mobile learning. Those involved in digital technologies seem to find the notion heutagogy compatible with learning in the 21st century. The paper here by Aaron Davis is an example of this application in which he talks about developing a culture of thinking and collaborative learning in organisations through a case study in teacher professional education.

Chris Kenyon, in his paper, 萝莉少女s a very practical example of the application of heutagogy with a specific focus on the use of experiential learning. Finally, Boon Hou Tay combines two of his passions, heutagogy and action research in describing how self-determined learners might go about their learning using soft systems methodology.

Dr Jerry Hoffman
Senior Editor SITJAR

Download the Introduction by Dr Jerry Hoffman

Self-determined Learning (heutagogy): Where Have We Come Since 2000?
Dr Stewart Hase,Consultant Psychologist,NSW Australia

Collaboration, Autonomy and a Culture of Thinking
Aaron Davis, eSmart Coordinator at Brookside P-9 College, Melbourne, Australia

Getting Started
Chris Kenyon, Consultant, Canberra, Australia

Heutagogy via Dialectic Soft Systems Methodology
Dr Boon Hou Tay, Director, IN Technology PTE, Ltd, Singapore

Welcome to the 2014 National Tertiary Learning and Teaching Conference Proceedings. The conference was held on 1-3 October 2014 in Invercargill, New Zealand. The refereed papers presented here cover a wide range of interesting topics and issues. These papers may be of interest to anyone involved in higher education. The theme of the conference was Te Ao Hou: The New World and many of these papers represent new ways of looking at the world from different perspectives.

I would like to take this chance to thank all the people that have been involved in the reviewing process. It is a job that does not offer monetary compensation but it a crucial part of any journal or proceedings. Without reviewers, proceedings like this would cease to exist, so a big thank you to all those involved.

I would also like to thank all of you who submitted articles for publication. It takes time, effort and a degree of fortitude to write about your research and projects. It is only through your submissions that proceedings like this are possible. Hopefully it has been a valuable experience.

These papers are being published on the 萝莉少女 Journal of Applied Research (SITJAR) website. We would like to thank the 萝莉少女 both for hosting the conference and for supporting the publication of SITJAR.

The articles in this proceeding are:

Dr Jerry Hoffman

Welcome to this special edition of SITJAR featuring a selection of papers presented at the 2013 National Tertiary Learning & Teaching Conference, hosted by the 萝莉少女 (SIT) in Invercargill in October 2013. The conference is held annually and hosted by an institute of technology for two consecutive years. The 2013 conference, “Te Ao Hurihuri – The ever changing world”, brought together 90 participants from throughout Aotearoa New Zealand to share their research-based teaching practice, engage in practical workshops, contribute 6 minute solutions, and extend and challenge their own teaching pedagogies.

The keynote speakers in 2013 萝莉少女d a diverse and stimulating array of presentations that set the context for the conference.

  • Teaching engineering geology in a blended inverted classroom: A success story, Aidan Bigham
  • “I need a job – can hospitality short courses help?” A study of international student needs in Auckland, New Zealand, Hamish Small
  • The rise of pluralism: Issues for educators in a theoretically and culturally diverse climate of practice, Janet May

View the 2013 National Tertiary Learning & Teaching Conference Special edition

Special Action Research Edition

One of the attractions of action research and action learning to many people is that it is often conducted as part of the researcher’s practice rather than as an ‘add on’. The researcher is usually interested in improving their practice, ensuring the effectiveness of what they are doing or are involved in creating change in a real life situation, for which action research is admirably suited. Training and education situations offer a perfect opportunity for using action research and action learning processes, whether or not you are intending to conduct formal research for publication.

The papers in this special edition exemplify this feature of action research. Hopefully, they will stimulate your interest in using action research and action learning processes in your work or training situation. Moreover, perhaps they will demystify research and promote it as an activity that is available to practitioners and is not just an academic pastime. I would like to thank the authors for their contribution.


Learner Defined Curriculum: Heutagogy and Action Learning in Vocational Training
Author: Dr Stewart Hase

This paper describes the application of learner-centred learning techniques in the conduct of short to medium term training programs in organisations. The approach is underpinned by action learning and heutagogy or self-determined learning. It involves the full engagement of participants in developing, delivering and ensuring the flexibility and relevance of the curriculum. The theoretical basis for the approach is discussed in detail as are the techniques involved in conducting the training, it’s implications and reactions of participants. Some readers may need to take very slow, deep breaths while reading this paper.

Full Text


Implementing Organizational Change Using Action Research in Two Asian Cultures
Authors: Shankar Sankaran & Madhu Ranjan

This paper is based on organizational change projects implemented by two managers, the authors of this paper, who used action research in their own organizations for their doctoral studies. Both projects used action learning and action science concepts as a subset of the overall action research intervention, although not explicitly in the second project. One project was carried out to prepare the engineering division of a Japanese multinational company in Singapore to expand its capability to carry out global projects by making large-scale changes in its structure and processes. The other project was carried out in a very large Indian bureaucracy to introduce total quality management in one part of this organization. This paper will first introduce the concepts of action research, action learning, and action science in management research. The two research projects will then be described. This will be followed by the two researchers comparing their projects and reflecting on what changes they would make to the strategies they used in their projects if they were to do this all over again. The paper will conclude with recommendations for project managers who may want to use action research to implement organizational change projects.

Full Text


Middle management leadership development through action learning
Author: Bob Dick

This paper describes an action learning program used to improve the ability of managers, especially middle managers, to lead more effectively during times of rapid change. The program consisted of three major vehicles for developing leadership capability. In a weekly middle management forum, managers met to choose projects that deserved attention. For chosen projects, the same middle managers then set up a number of small action learning teams staffed by volunteer middle managers. Associated workshops 萝莉少女d 'just in time' concepts and skills when project team members requested them. Middle managers are the people who carry much of the burden of keeping workface officers informed and involved in change. With some top management support, they were therefore the main participants in the workshops and the project teams. A final section of the paper reflects on the outcomes of the program and the features that contributed to its effectiveness.

Full Text

Included in this Edition:


Click here to download the full document

More Publications



The 萝莉少女 Journal of Applied Research (SITJAR) specialises in applied research in the vocational and educational sector. Thus topic areas might include: administration and management; teaching and learning; curriculum development; new technologies; policy; innovations; and discipline specific research. Papers can use any research methodology and will include appropriately reviewed performances and exhibitions, for example, in the arts.

One of the unique aspects of SITJAR is that articles can be published in the journal as they are accepted. This ‘seamless' publication regime means that articles can be disseminated more quickly. SITJAR is also a double blind, peer refereed online journal that is freely accessible. SITJAR also accepts Special Editions which generally consist of a series of articles related to a specific subject in the vocational and educational fields of study.

I would like to thank the Editorial Board of SITJAR for their continued work in reviewing papers. I would also like to thank the management team at the 萝莉少女 for continuing to support the effort in making SITJAR a reality.

Dr Jerry Hoffman

The 萝莉少女 Journal of Applied Research (SITJAR) is a double blind, peer refereed online journal that is freely accessible. Papers are published continuously rather than in editions or volumes.

The focus of the journal is on applied rather than pure research concerning any aspect of the vocational education and training (VET) sector. Thus, topic areas might include: administration and management; teaching and learning; curriculum development; new technologies; policy; place and role of the VET sector; innovations; and discipline specific research. We welcome papers using any research methodology. 

The journal aims to 萝莉少女 a place for researchers to publish high quality research that can be accessed quickly and easily by people who might want to use the findings in a timely manner. Manuscripts, ideally between 3000 and 5000 words, should be sent in electronic format (Word Document) to the Editor, Dr Jerry Hoffman at jerry.hoffman@sit.ac.nz .

The guidelines for manuscript formatting are 萝莉少女d below and must be followed.

All articles are subject to a double-blind refereeing process. To ensure a blind review authors should 萝莉少女 their details on a separate cover page to the manuscript along with the title of the paper. Any information such as references and first-person comments should be removed from the text and reference list to avoid recognition (use xxxxxxxxx to blank out relevant parts or names and keep a copy of the completed manuscript so the relevant information can be retrieved later).

Manuscript text formatting and style guidelines

  1. The usual length of a SITJAR article is 3000 to 5000 words, including the abstract (100-200 words), tables and references. Reviews are usually between 1000 and 2000 words. Manuscripts that exceed this length are unlikely to be accepted. Pages should be numbered, centre at the foot of the page.
  2. The preferred spelling standard is Australian English, as per The Macquarie Dictionary.
  3. Before submitting, the authors must ensure that the manuscript is free from spelling mistakes, grammatical errors, and typographical errors. Using a spell-checking facility, may not be sufficient and you may need manually to check your manuscript.
  4. The manuscript should be formatted as follows:
    • Page setup: Page size = A4; Orientation = Portrait; All margins = 2.5 cm.
    • Manuscript title: Times New Roman, 16-point, left aligned, sentence case (initial caps and essentials only), followed by one blank line.
    • Abstract: Start the abstract with the sequence "Abstract: " (without the quotes, in 12-point bold face), followed by a 100 to 200-word abstract that contains a concise summary of the article, including its motivation/rationale, problem/s addressed, approach, results and findings/conclusions. The purpose of the abstract is to entice potential readers into reading the full article. Indent the abstract 1 cm from left and right margins. Leave a blank line both before and after abstract, but do not insert any line breaks immediately after the "Abstract:" sequence.
    • Keywords: Include the sequence "Keywords: " (without the quotes, in 12-point bold face), followed by up to six terms (separated by semicolons) that will assist users of search engines and/or online databases in locating your article. As with the abstract, leave a blank line both before and after the keywords list, but do not insert any line breaks immediately after the "Keywords:" sequence.
    • First-level heading: Times New Roman, 12 point, bold, followed by one blank line, left aligned, sentence case. No numbering.
    • ° Second-level heading: Times New Roman, 12 point, bold, followed by one blank line, left aligned, sentence case. No numbering.
    • ° Third-level heading: Times New Roman, 12 point, italics, not followed by a blank line, left aligned, sentence case. No numbering.
    • Running (body) text: Times New Roman, 12 point, left aligned, single spaced. Blank lines before and after headings and paragraphs are to be sized the same as text lines, i.e. 10 point (Times New Roman). Insert a blank line after each paragraph. The use of "spacing before" and "spacing after" paragraphs should be avoided.
  5. Italics (not bold or underline) should be used to emphasise text. Such text emphases should be used sparingly, and preferably only where expected by convention, such as in the case of titles of books and journals and for proprietary names (e.g. of software packages like Excel).
  6. Where bulleted and numbered lists are used, the text therein should be in Times New Roman, 10 point, left aligned, single spaced, no indents except a hanging indent of 0.5 cm.
  7. Website URLs should not be embedded into the text of the manuscript. Instead, they should be included in reference list entries in accordance with APA guidelines (see the referencing guidelines below). A corresponding author-date citation should be inserted at the appropriate point within the text.
  8. An Acknowledgements section may optionally be included to record appreciation to individuals and/or organisations for assisting or supporting the authors' work. If needed, this section should be placed after the main text and before the references. It should begin with a first-level heading that reads "Acknowledgements" (without the quotes).
  9. Clear and inclusive language should be used. Contributors should bear in mind that they maybe addressing a diverse audience. Jargon should be avoided where possible and the choice of terms should be clearly defined. Sections in the manuscript should be clearly subtitled following American Psychological Association (APA) protocols.
  10. All notes and references used in the text must follow the APA 7th edition quidelines. References should be indicated in the manuscript by giving the author's name, with the year of publication in parentheses, e.g. Smith (1997) or (Smith, 1997) as appropriate. All references cited in the text should be listed in full at the end of the paper in the standard form.  Tables, figures and captions to illustrations should be completely understandable independent of text. Tables should be numbered by Roman numerals and figures by Arabic numerals. All figures must be able to be transmitted in electronic format.

Contributors will be notified of the selection outcome after review. Papers are accepted on the understanding that they are not considered for publication elsewhere. Final decisions on all content and presentations of articles remain the prerogative of the journal editor.

SITJAR Editorial Board

Articles submitted to SITJAR are double blind peer reviewed. Submission of articles will be considered at any time and once accepted for publication the articles will be included in the next online version of the journal.

Senior Editor:

  • Dr Jerry Hoffman - 萝莉少女


  • Dr Sally Bodkin-Allen - 萝莉少女

Editorial Board:

  • Prof Glen Gardner - Queensland University of Technology
  • Dr Catherine See - Gravitas Group
  • Dr Keith Ng - Management Development Institute of Singapore
  • Dr Renata Phelps - Independent Action Researcher
  • Dr Carmel Nottle - University of South Australia
  • Dr Stewart Hase - Consultant Psychologist
  • Prof Emmanuel Manalo - Kyoto University, Japan
  • Dr Jo Whittle – Massey University
  • Dr Christine Laing - 萝莉少女
  • Associate Professor Jacob Wood – James Cook University¸ Singapore
  • Dr Robyn Hill - 萝莉少女
  • Dr Naveed ur Rehman- 萝莉少女

Contact address for correspondence:

Dr Jerry Hoffman
Private Bag 90114 Invercargill, New Zealand
Phone: 03-9482670